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Types of Skin Cancer: Causes, Signs, Symptoms Prevention and Treatment

Skin cancer is a condition of abnormal growth of cells. It occurs when the cells changes. And multiply uncontrollably. When the cancer cells invade other organs, it is called “Metastasis”.

Skin cancer is the common form of human cancer in the US. The number has reach about 3 million people having this condition. The main cause of the skin cancer is overexposed to UV Light.

Skin Cancer

There are 3 types of Skin cancer such as:

  • Basal Cell
  • Squamous Cell Carcinomas
  • Melanoma

CAUSES OF SKIN CANCER

The main cause of skin cancer is a direct exposure to UV light. Some other cause may include:

  • Cells involved in skin cancer
  • Use of tanning lotion
  • Immunosuppression
  • Exposure to high levels of X-rays
  • Contact with certain chemicals-arsenic

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

The following are signs and symptoms of skin cancer. It may vary depending upon the types of cancer.

BASAL CELL SYMPTOMS:

  • A pearly or waxy bump
  • A flat or brown-scar like lesion
  • A depression in the center
  • Bleeding possibly with oozing

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA SYMPTOMS:

  • A firm red nodule
  • A flat scaly lesion
  • A rough patch inside your mouth
  • A new sore on the old scar
  • A wart-like sore in the anus

MELANOMA SYMPTOMS:

  • A large brownish spot with darker speckles
  • The moles are changing in size, shape, and color
  • A small lesion with irregular border and portion
  • Dark lesion on your palms, toes, nose, vagina, and anus

RISK FACTORS

The risk factors may vary depending on the types of skin cancer. There are some general factors at risk of developing skin cancer such as:

  • A fair skin
  • A Family History of the Cancer
  • A Personal History of Skin Cancer
  • Excessive exposure to the sun
  • History of sunburns
  • Exposure to Radiation
  • Weak Immune System
  • Exposure to certain substances
  • A blue or green eyes
  • Moles
  • Having a Precancerous skin lesions
  • Sunny or High Altitude Climate

HOW TO REDUCE THE RISK  OF HAVING SKIN CANCER?

The following are ways to help reduce your risk of the Cancer:

  • Avoid indoor tanning.
  • Stay in the shade.
  • Wear a hat.
  • Use sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher.
  • Wear sunglasses.

HOW TO PREVENT SKIN CANCER

The skin cancer is preventable. You can have your ways to prevent the disease by following the tips below:

  • Avoid the sun between 11am to 3pm.
  • Always wear sunscreen when exposing to UV light.
  • Wear protective clothing.
  • Avoid tanning beds.
  • Be careful and aware of sun-sensitizing medication.
  • Observe extra caution near water and sand.

SKIN CANCER TREATMENT

The treatment option for skin cancer known as “Actinic Keratoses”. It varies depending on the size, type, and location of the lesions.

The treatment includes:

  • Freezing
  • Excisional Surgery
  • Mohs Surgery
  • Cryotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Photodynamic Therapy
  • Biological Therapy

MEDICATION

There are medications approved in treating the skin cancer. Depending on its type. These are some common drugs:

FOR BASAL CELL:

  • Erivedge Oral
  • Sonidegib
  • Odomzo

FOR SQUAMOUS CARCINOMA:

  • Bleomycin
  • Cetuximab
  • Erbitux

FOR MELANOMA:

  • Cotellic (Cobimetinib)
  • Mekinist (Trametinib)
  • Opdivo (Nivolumab)